CANADA’S 2021

New Wheat Crop

Executive Summary

A challenging growing season produced a quality 2021 crop.

Overall Quality

Overall Quality

A higher proportion of all major wheat classes from 2021 crop year from Canada had high protein content and graded in the top 2 grades

How it was Grown

How it was Grown

Below average growing conditions across Canada.

Production

Production

Despite extreme dry heat, farmers grew almost 22 million tonnes of wheat.

Protein

Protein

Above average protein content for all wheat classes.

Milling Quality

Milling Quality

Despite challenges in the 2020-21 crop, milling yields are comparable to last year.

Shipping

Shipping

Canada’s crop exports reached almost 58 million tonnes throughout the pandemic.

In-depth assessment of the 2021 Wheat Crop

CWRS

Canada Western Red Spring

Hard wheat. High protein content. Superior milling and baking characteristics. Excellent end-product quality.

CWAD

Canada Western Amber Durum

Superior yellow colour. High protein content. High semolina yield. Strong and extensible gluten.

CPSR

Canada Prairie Spring Red

Medium protein content. Medium kernel hardness. Excellent flour yields.

CESRW

Canada Eastern Soft Red Winter

Low protein content. Ideal for baking applications such as cakes, pastry, cereal, cookies, crackers, biscuits and fillings.

farmer

2021 Growing Season in Review

An extended period of hot and dry weather during the 2021 growing season impacted crop yields. Although production volumes are lower than average, this year’s crop is of high quality with much of the production in the top 2 grades.

See how the crop progressed

02

Production

Hot and dry conditions in Western Canada reduced total wheat production compared to the 2020-21 growing season.

The weather in the west reduced crop yields for that region and resulted high protein content wheat. Better conditions in Eastern Canada growing regions resulted in good production for eastern winter wheat.

'000 tDurumWheatTotal
We Produced MT3,545 MT18,170 MT21,715 MT
Carry-in MT752 MT4,954 MT5,706 MT
Domestic use MT772 MT7,324 MT8,096 MT
Exports MT3,100 MT13,000 MT16,100 MT
End stocks MT450 MT3,000 MT3,450 MT

01

Growing

Despite extreme heat and dryness throughout North America including Western Canada, Canadian farmers grew quality crops for our markets.

In Western Canada, we saw precipitation early in the growing season which set the stage for a good start to the 2021 growing season. As the season progressed, hot and dry conditions persisted throughout July and into mid-August. Without moisture or temperature relief, crop conditions and yield potential deteriorated through this period. Given the hot conditions through the growing season, harvest was earlier than normal in Western Canada. Rain at the end of August and in early September came too late to help wheat and durum yields. This year, virtually all spring wheat and durum was harvested by the middle of October.

While in Eastern Canada, we saw an early fall planting season for eastern winter wheat followed by mild winter weather which maintained beneficial conditions for the winter wheat crop. Mild weather and consistent snowmelt, followed by warm weather and timely rains pushed growing conditions forward in the spring, establishing good yield potential for the winter wheat.

03

Sample Analysis

Cereals Canada worked directly with the grain exporters to obtain representative samples from the wheat crop.

This year, over 120 samples were received from 9 grain exporters. Each company sample represented export quality from a specific region for a particular wheat class and grade. These samples were used to prepare composites that were thoroughly analyzed by Cereals Canada.

Eastern and Western composites were prepared for No. 1 CWRS

Prairie composites were prepared for No. 2 CWRS, CWAD (No. 1, No. 2, No. 3) and CPSR (No. 2 or better)

Cereals Canada staff communicated weekly with the individual exporters to understand how harvest was progressing and any relevant downgrading factors that may affect the quality of the 2021 wheat crop. This is part of Cereals Canada commitment to accurately represent harvest quality.

Download analytical methods

04

Shipping

Canada is investing in infrastructure and supply chain improvements to meet global customer needs.

Canada has increased rail efficiency and saw increased west coast port capacity with the construction of the Fraser Grain Terminal.

Ten years ago, Canada exported approximately 33 million tonnes of grain and in the 2020/21 crop year almost 58 million tonnes were delivered to export markets.

The pandemic has NOT impacted the Canadian crop or the supply chain.

The crops that we grow in Canada are among some of the highest quality in the world. I'm proud to be able to contribute to supplying our customers with the best quality wheat.”

Jake Leguee

Grain, oilseed and pulse farmer

Filmore, Saskatchewan

Quality nourished at every step

Planting

Planting

Wheat varieties are carefully selected for planting, based on important characteristics including yield and protein potential, disease and insect resistance.

Overall, the factors that influence crop selection are based on plant disease pressures, soil conditions and land stewardship priorities. Attempts are made to balance these factors with yield potential to maximize farm income. The focus on intrinsic properties and consistent quality is driven by the Variety Registration Process. This extensive exercise is overseen by the Government of Canada’s Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Variety Registration Office. It ensures that newly registered varieties will reflect the quality and characteristics expected of a particular wheat class.

Important innovations and practices ensure seeding and cultivation occurs effectively. Fertilizer and other crop inputs are used to keep soil healthy. Water conservation and erosion are managed by minimal soil disruption and achieved through reduced tillage technology. Precision technology influences the way Canadian producers farm and includes improvements in fuel consumption, GPS mapping, sectional control and auto steering to prevent overlapping and reduced seed, fertilizer and pesticide use.

Growing

Growing

Reducing plant competition and improving management practices optimizes plant nutrient usage and minimizes run-off.

Reduced tillage helps conserve water, minimize soil disruption and prevent erosion. Precision agriculture avoids overlapping and reduces seed, fertilizer and pesticide use, as well as reducing fuel consumption. Reduced plant competition allows for more efficient use of soil nutrients and moisture, while maximizing quality and yield. Crop rotation reduces pesticide use through sustainable crop diversification.

Harvesting & Storage

Harvesting & Storage

Straight cutting wheat reduces time in the field, field passes, emissions and harvesting costs for the farmer.

Timing ensures kernel moisture content is optimal. Straw choppers and spreaders expedite how plant nutrients are returned to the soil. During the storage process, quality is maintained by cooling and lowering the kernel moisture content, minimizing pests and mycotoxin development.

  • It is essential to check bin condition regularly and ensure they are cleaned, cool, dry and well-ventilated – prior to storing any crop. To aid in long-term storage, the crops are also conditioned to varied moisture and temperature levels.
Shipping & Logistics

Shipping & Logistics

Infrastructure investments and supply chain improvements are supporting efficient exporting.

This year, Canada’s grain handling system is forecasting continued growth in shipping exports to markets around the world. Movement of Canadian grain by rail has flowed smoothly throughout the COVID-19 pandemic – with the rising demand for staple foods. With the focus provided by 2019-20 resilience tests, important infrastructure development projects are underway to help strengthen the distribution system and meet growing export demand.

From our fields to the world’s table

Our commitment is to advancing nourishment to the planet now and in the future. We are committed to taking care of our land, growing quality grains and following current on-farm management practices. We value clean air, clean water and sustainable land use. Responsible farming is at the heart of what we do and we are proud of how we contribute to providing a consistent, quality grain supply to feed the planet.

Where Canadian wheat goes

Distribution pie chart

* Data updated November 2021

Canada supplies the world

12%

of its wheat exports

58%

of its durum exports

Canada feeds the world

Modern farming practices and cutting-edge innovations have enabled Canadian wheat to answer the worldwide call for a premium, sustainable product.

Canadian Wheat Classes

CWRS

Canada Western Red Spring

A hard wheat with high protein and superior milling and baking characteristics. Ideal for high-volume pan, hearth and flat breads, noodles and Asian product applications.

Learn more about CWRS

CWAD

Canada Western Amber Durum

High protein content, strong and extensible gluten, high semolina yield and superior yellow color make CWAD ideal for couscous. As well as dried and fresh pasta and hearth-style, artisan and flat breads.

Learn more about CWAD

CPSR

Canada Prairie Spring Red

CPSR’s medium protein content, medium kernel hardness and excellent flour yields make it ideal for hearth-style, pan and flat breads, crackers, instant and white salted noodles.

Learn more about CPSR

CESRW

Canada Eastern Soft Red Winter

Grown largely in Ontario, with additional production in Quebec and the Atlantic provinces, the lower protein content in CESRW is ideally suited for cakes, pastry, cereal, crackers, biscuits and fillings.

Learn more about CESRW
Have questions about our other wheat classes?

Everything we grow advances global nourishment

Canada is setting the standard for modern farming practices

Clean, consistent and quality

Through modern farming practices, Canadian farmers can grow strong wheat varieties, use good farm management practices from planting to harvest and on-farm storage. Canada has a natural advantage when it comes to land, water and climate. Through strong science-based regulation from the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), it sets the high standards for clean, consistent quality grains.

Farmers strive to reduce plant competition, ensure a successful harvest and uphold quality standards during storage. In addition to our farmers using modern farming practices, being supported by Canada’s natural advantages and the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC). CGC provides regulatory oversight through a grain classification and variety registration system. This allows Canada to ensure verifiable quality, consistency and cleanliness of our grains.

Innovation

Across the country, agriculture continues to make advancements in farming practices and crop production. Led by Cereals Canada and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the National Wheat Research priorities have been developed. Through a unique national collaboration of farmers, federal and provincial governments, public research institutions, exporters and processors, this partnership between public and private sectors are committed to delivering innovation in the wheat sector.

Canada’s clean, consistent, high-quality wheat is a result of cutting-edge new variety research, modern agronomic practices, and emerging farming technologies, as well as the work of regulatory agencies like the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), which ensures that all exports meet established standards.

The Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada are Canada’s regulatory agencies. They play a coordinated role in supporting the quality and safety of Canadian wheat from production to export. Farmers are supported through Cereals Canada’s innovative Keep it Clean program, which promotes market considerations such as grain storage and pesticide use.

Sustainability

Current farm management practices continue to provide a better and healthier farming environment than previous generations. Modern practices like conservation tillage (minimum or zero tillage) helps to capture or sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to slow or reverse atmospheric CO2 pollution to mitigate and reverse global warming keeping sustainability at the forefront of farming.

Modern farming practices like conservation tillage are increasing soil health by building up organic matter and reducing erosion. Conservation tillage also reduces the amount of fuel used. Agriculture in Canada helps to slow climate change by storing carbon on agricultural lands. Storing CO2 in soil as organic matter, as well as in perennial vegetation and in trees reduces levels in the atmosphere itself. These management practices support the next generation of farmers. Farmers are committed to clean air, clean water and clean land to have the environment be healthier than when previous generations began farming.

As a farmer, to grow the best crops with the highest quality, I look for varieties with good yield potential with strong disease and pest resistance. These are two main factors in choosing seed varieties that work for my farm and it’s environment.”

TODD HAMES

Grain, oilseed and pulse farmer

Marwayne, Alberta

Have questions? We have answers.

Anything from storage to seeding, technological innovations to farming practices, see below for responses to your inquiries.

Quality Assesment

Can you recommend storage practices for Canadian wheat in our country?

Growing Season

Why does Canadian wheat have a higher moisture content? How does high moisture affect storage?

Farming Practices

Does the government mandate what farmers grow?

What is the availability of CWRS / CWAD / CPSR for 2021?

The 2021-22 growing season was a challenging one for Canadian grain farmers. An extended period of hot and dry weather conditions in June and July impacted crop yields, resulting in wheat and durum production 33% below the five-year average. Lower production will also mean lower exportable supplies. According to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (as of October 20, 2021), exports of non-durum wheat areforecasted at 13.0 million tonnes for 2021-22. Durum exports are forecasted at 3.1 million tonnes.

Please connect with your Canadian grain supplier for the latest details on key wheat class export availability into your market.

How does temperature affect the growing and harvest seasons?

Although conditions varied by across Western Canada this past growing season, many farmers seeded into relatively dry conditions, but received well-timed rains. This supported crop establishment early in the growing season.

Sustained dry and hot conditions through the end of June to mid-August reduced the crop’s yield potential and brought the crop quickly into maturity. Harvest began early and with some delays due to harvest precipitation resulting in a lower volume but higher protein crop.

See a full overview of growing conditions throughout the 2021-22 season

How is Canadian agriculture dealing with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions?

Crop production accounts for a relatively small portion of Canada’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The latest studies indicate that GHG emissions relating to crop production specific factors account for only 3.65% of Canada’s total. (Link En81-4-2019-1-eng.pdf (publications.gc.ca) ). GHG emissions associated with crop production are further reduced when considering the role that crop production plays by sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) on agricultural lands in soil as organic matter, as well as in perennial vegetation and in trees reduces levels in the atmosphere itself.

The Canadian crops sector is making strides in reducing emissions and pursuing practices that can help turn agriculture land into carbon sinks. Carbon sinks are natural systems that absorb and store CO2 from the atmosphere.

Farmers use on-farm management strategies such as conservation tillage, modifying harvest strategies, improving fertilizers and fertilizer application approaches, improving soil carbon sequestration and using other sustainable farming methods.

Since 1990, Canadian farmers have succeeded in implementing conservation tillage practices on 17 million hectares of cropland and reduced the amount of fallow cropland by 98%. These actions have changed cropland from being an annual net emitter of 7.6 million tonnes of CO2 in 1990 to a net remover of 4.2 million tonnes of CO2 in 2019. (Link En81-4-2019-1-eng.pdf (publications.gc.ca) )

Is there any genetically modified (GM) wheat grown in Canada?

No. There is no genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties grown or sold in Canada.

What is CP+?

Canadian medium protein wheats are often sold on specifications outside of the official classification and grading system to meet varying customer needs with a dynamic supply. Blends sold on specification that include a high proportion of the Canada Prairie Spring Red (CPSR) wheat class are commonly referred to as CP+ or CPS+ and also can include varying amounts of CWRS, CNHR or other classes. The agreement of the specifications is between the buyer and seller.

How is Canadian pesticide use regulated?

Canada has one of the most stringent regulatory systems in the world when it comes to pest control products. This is governed by Health Canada. Pest control products have an important role in improving wheat yield potential by reducing insect, weed and plant disease impacts. It also helps to ensure food safety by reducing infection from plant diseases that produce mycotoxins, such as Fusarium graminearum and deoxynivalenol (DON).

Pest control product labels are legally binding documents in Canada. Under the Pest Control Products Act, product labels specify the amount of product, timing for application, amount of time between application and harvest, re-entry interval (how much time is needed after application before re-entry into the area) and personal protective equipment required for the product’s safe handling and use.

Cereals Canada is a member to a national program called Keep it Clean The program is a resource that supports the value chain including farmers and agronomists to protect access to global markets through responsible pesticide use.

Learn more about pesticide use and monitoring:

Pesticides and health
Pesticide facts and figures

How does Canada comply with Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for pesticides on cereal grains and grain products?

Each year, the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) samples commodity export cargos for various pesticide residues to ensure they comply with importing Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). Additionally, at the point of grain delivery, farmers are required to sign a Declaration Form, indicating that the grain being delivered is of a registered variety (for applicable crop types). Grain handlers also request a declaration from the farmer to assure that any pest control products used are registered and were used according to label directions.

Cereals Canada is a member to a national program called Keep it Clean The program is a resource that supports the value chain including farmers and agronomists to protect access to global markets through responsible pesticide use.

How is wheat quality and safety assured throughout the system?

Canada is known for the production and export of clean, consistent, high-quality wheat. This reputation is supported by on-farm decisions as well as the work of regulatory agencies like the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), which inspect and certify export shipments based on established standards. Canadian farmers take pride in growing safe, nutritious and affordable foods that are enjoyed by customers around the world.

Is Falling Number (FN) a grading factor?

Falling Number (FN) is not an official grading factor in Canada. However, buyers can purchase grain based on specific quality characteristics such as a minimum FN. This type of request can be discussed with your grain handler.

Sprout damage is an objective grading factor. Wheat kernels are visually assessed for sprouted and severely sprouted kernels. The tolerances for the amount of sprouted and severely sprouted kernels depend on the wheat class (CWRS, CWAD, CPSR, CWRW, CNHR etc.) and grade. Find more information in Chapter 4 of the Official Grain Grading Guide.

How is pesticide compliance ensured?

The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) has a mandate to prevent unacceptable risks to people and the environment from the use of pesticide products. The PMRA supports various stakeholders along the value chain and promotes compliance so informed decisions can be made by registrants, manufacturers, importers and users. Safe on-farm pesticide use is the responsibility of the farmer but is supported by the regulatory framework of the PMRA.

Inspections by the PMRA offer an additional assurance and may be conducted to determine compliance with such things as the directions on labels, distribution and use of registered products and may involve collecting samples for analyses, or examining facilities, product labels and documents.

Why are there residual glyphosate levels on grain?

Glyphosate is quickly degraded by soil microorganisms. Low levels are detectable in the soil and environment, but glyphosate is considered a non-persistent herbicide. When glyphosate is applied to a crop according to the Canadian product label directions (rate, plant stage, etc.), product residues will be well below the allowable Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). A MRL is the maximum amount of residues that are expected to remain on food products when a pesticide is used according to label directions.

In Canada, MRLs are set at levels well below the amount that could pose a health concern. Learn more Report: https://inspection.canada.ca/food-safety-for-industry/food-chemistry-and-microbiology/food-safety-testing-bulletin-and-reports/pesticides-and-metals-in-selected-foods/eng/1596227691284/1596228117041

What are the tolerances for dockage/impurities in Canadian wheat?

Wheat shipped from Canada is shipped as commercially clean. Wheat cannot be shipped with dockage without the permission of the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC). The total tolerance (including total small seeds, large seeds, wild oats, roughage, and broken grain through #5 buckwheat sieve) for CWRS Nos. 1, 2, 3 is 0.5%.

For more information about export grade determinations visit pages 4-66 of the Official Grain Grading Guide

What moisture basis is Canadian wheat and flour results reported on?

Results corrected to a constant moisture basis (mb) ensure an accurate comparison between samples. Different countries have different moisture bases to which results are corrected. In Canada, wheat quality results are corrected to a 13.5% mb and flour quality results are corrected to a 14.0% mb.

This table provides an example of the use of different moisture corrections on the protein content results of three different samples with different moisture contents. The “as-is” protein content is the same, but when you correct to a specific moisture basis, the protein content changes.

Impact of moisture content and moisture correction on results*

Sample
MC%
Protein
content
(as is), %
Canada US Australia Other Countries
13.5% mb 12.0% mb 11.0% mb dmb %*
Protein content, %
13.4 14.9 14.9 15.1 15.3 17.2
12.4 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.1 17.0
11.4 14.9 14.5 14.8 15.0 16.8

*Adapted from Williams et al. 1998. Protein Testing Methods at the CGC. In, Proceedings of the Wheat Protein Symposium. University of SK.

Abbreviations used: MC = moisture content; mb = moisture basis; dmb = dry matter basis

What involvement does Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) have in Cereals Canada’s Harvest Assessment?

The Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) supports Cereals Canada’s Harvest Assessment by providing CGC inspectors to grade all composite samples that represent the quality of wheat classes from Western Canada (CWRS, CWAD and CPSR).

What is the relationship between protein and gluten?

Gluten is made up of two different proteins: gliadin and glutenin. Gluten is formed when ground wheat or flour/semolina and water are mixed to form a dough. Wet gluten (WG) content is related to protein content. When protein content is higher, WG content generally will be higher.

Where can I find the methods used in analytical testing?

The methods used by Cereals Canada for milling, analytical testing and end-product are available here.

What is the current state of Canada’s grain handling system for rail and shipping?

In the 2020-21 crop year, Canada’s logistics system achieved crop exports of almost 58 million tonnes. This was a record year for Canada’s grain handling system. Canada’s grain handling system continues to grow with new infrastructure investments in the country-elevator and terminal elevator network. With production volumes below average this season, there is strong capacity available within the grain handling system to support export shipments.

What is the average wheat yield on a farm?

Wheat yields in 2021-22 growing season are below average due to the unusually hot and dry conditions experienced across the Western Canada this summer. For non-durum wheat, estimated yield in 2021-22 is 2.6 tonnes per hectare (compared to an average of 3.65 tonnes/hectare in 2016-20). For durum wheat, the estimated yield this year is 1.6 tonnes per hectare (compared to an average of 2.71 tonnes/hectare in 2016-20).

Can I request a grain sample?

Cereals Canada does not market grain and are unable to provide samples. We would be happy to connect you with one of Canada’s leading grain handlers to obtain samples and you will also be able to inquire about product availability, quality and pricing. Contact us for more information.

How is flour extraction on a 0.50% ash calculated?

For the most accurate comparisons between two or more wheat samples, we compare flour extractions at the same flour ash level. At Cereals Canada, these extractions are corrected at 0.50% ash, a value that is closer to the ash content of a commercially milled flour. Our calculations are based on our cumulative ash data that for every 0.01% difference in ash from 0.50%, the extraction percentage is increasing or decreasing by 0.50%.

How can wheat with a low falling number (FN) be managed in the mill?

Alpha-amylase is the enzyme present in sprout damaged wheat that will negatively affect quality. Wheat that has sprout damage will have more alpha-amylase present than sound wheat (little to no sprout damage). The most common practice when using wheat with a low falling number (FN) is to reduce the addition of fungal amylase in the finished flour. If a mill is not adding fungal amylase to the finished flour, other ways to manage wheat with a low FN include:

• Reducing starch damage: Damaged starch is more susceptible to amylase attack (present in wheat with a low FN).

• Aggressive scouring: Alpha-amylase is concentrated on the outer part of the wheat kernel, which means more aggressive scouring could help remove some of this material and reduce the alpha-amylase content.

• Removing the tail-end flour streams: Tail-end flour streams tend to have higher levels of alpha-amylase.

• Using a color sorter in the cleaning house: Observe whether severely sprouted kernels can be removed to increase the wheat FN (and the resulting flour). Note: Camera sensitivity may need to be adjusted.

• Blending wheat with a sound FN with wheat with a low FN can be risky. FN values should be converted to a Liquefaction Number (LN; LN = 6000/(FN-50)) before calculating blend percentages. Contact Cereals Canada milling staff for more information on using this calculation for wheat blending.

What enzymes and dough conditioners are used in the baking process?

There are a number of different dough conditioners that can be used in baking including:

• Alpha-amylase: These break down damaged starch into smaller sugar units, which are consumed by yeast during fermentation to produce carbon dioxide (CO2). Amylases help optimize the dough’s gas production, which improves loaf volume and enhances crust colour.

• Xylanase: These break down insoluble cell-wall compounds in the flour and create soluble fragments while releasing bound water into the dough for better gluten hydration. Xylanases enhance network formation in the dough and have a strengthening effect. They improve dough tolerance and machinability, resulting in improved loaf volume, crumb structure and softness.

• Hemicellulase: These break down the hemicellulose or pentosans in flour, which releases bound water into the dough for better gluten hydration. They improve dough machinability (dough is made more ‘machine-friendly’) and help improve loaf volume and crumb structure.

• Glucose oxidase: This dough additive causes a reaction that forms linkages in the dough’s gluten network. Glucose oxidase adds strength to the dough and makes it drier, which can help improve bread volume and result in a more uniform bread crumb.

• Lipase: These break down fat in the flour to produce mono- and di-glycerides. They are recommended for use in bread formulations that have lower fat levels. Lipases improve dough strength and can help improve loaf volume and crumb structure

• Lipoxygenase: These break down fats in the flour that give pigments to the dough. They help improve crumb colour by making it whiter.

• Maltogenic alpha-amylase: This converts the starch into forms that resist firming (staling in the bread), which can make the bread softer over its shelf life (anti-staling agents).

Dough conditioners are divided into four groups:

• Reducing agents: These break down the linkages in the gluten network and make the dough weaker (more extensible and less elastic). They are typically used to reduce dough mixing time in commercial bakeries. Common types include L-cysteine and inactive yeast (glutathione).

• Emulsifiers: These are fat-based ingredients that function as dough strengtheners and crumb softeners. Dough-strengthening emulsifiers (such as diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and di-glycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL)) interact with the gluten network and make it more elastic and more extensible, which results in dough that is less susceptible to breaking when exposed to mechanical stresses (adds to its tolerance). They not only improve the strength of the gluten network but can also improve loaf volume and produce a finer crumb structure. Crumb-softening emulsifiers (such as monoglycerides) bind with the gelatinizing starch during baking, which prevents the crumb from firming as the bread ages. The result is improved crumb softness.

• Oxidants: These form linkages in the gluten network, which makes the dough stronger (less extensible and more elastic). Ascorbic acid is a commonly used oxidant.

• Vital wheat gluten: This increases the protein content of the flour and helps with gluten network formation. Vital wheat gluten can improve the tolerance and strength of the dough, which can improve loaf volume, produce stronger sidewalls and increase crumb strength.

What is the optimal tempering time for CWRS / CPSR / CWAD?

Optimal tempering time can vary in different countries and may also vary depending on the target product specifications (for example producing a specific particle size in CWAD semolina). Generally, the following tempering times apply for most countries:

• CWRS: 20-24 h

• CPSR: 20 h

• CWAD: 12-16 h for production of coarser semolina or 16-20 h for production of finer semolina

What effect does starch damage have on baking quality?

Typically, starch damage levels in flour range between 5-8% (Megazyme results). These levels are optimal for overall baking performance. Baking absorption depends on the level of starch damage. If flour has higher starch damage, it will generally absorb more water. However, this water might be released back into the dough during fermentation and can result in a stickier dough with more extensible properties and overall weaker dough handling properties. This negative impact is more apparent if a long-time fermentation baking practice is used since it allows the enzymes to degrade the damaged starch to a greater extent. The resulting bread will have lower volume with a more open crumb structure and less bright (creamier) crumb colour.

The dough’s gas production capability depends on the level of starch damage. Higher starch damage can cause excessive gas production and reduced overall dough fermentation tolerance, resulting in reduced loaf volume and a more open crumb structure.

What is Crop Insurance?

Crop Insurance is a business risk management program offered to farmers in Canada. Crop Insurance provides insurance for crops that experience a loss in yield. The insurance provides coverage in the event a crop fails to grow or excess moisture prevents a crop from being seeded. Farmers can select different levels and options. In Canada, delivery of crop insurance is supported by the federal and provincial governments under the Canadian Agricultural Policy Framework.

What is the impact of test weight on wheat quality?

Test weight is impacted by many factors, which can include kernel size and shape, type of impurities, kernel surface properties, infestation which can impact the flour yield. Wheat with low test weight is negatively impacted by the factors mentioned, which means that its flour yield is expected to be lower.

How does lower levels of hard vitreous kernels (HVK) impact wheat quality in CWRS or CWAD?

Lower levels of hard vitreous kernels (HVK) impact CWRS and CWAD quality differently. In CWRS, a very low level of HVK could result in the production of more break flour and less purifiable endosperm during milling. This is not what millers want. The flour produced from wheat with lower levels of HVK could also have lower starch damage which means lower water absorption, decreased amount of low ash patent flour and higher straight grade flour ash. Flour yield may not be impacted with HVK.

In CWAD, lower HVK can reduce the semolina yield and result in increased production of residual flour or clears. Semolina produced from CWAD with low HVK can result in the production of more fine semolina (reduced production of coarse semolina).

Have a question that wasn’t covered?

Download all 2021 wheat crop details
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Consistency is what I think about when it comes to milling wheat. As a miller, it is important that I understand the quality of the new wheat crop and how the flour is going to perform. These webinars provide me with information on what I can expect with the new crop.”

JOSÉ,

Miller, Past Attendee

Flour functionality is an important factor to consider when producing bread. Canadian wheat produces flour that has the quality and consistency to ensure good end-product results.”

JUAN HAMES

Miller and Bakery

Manager, Past Attendee

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