CANADA’S 2020

New Wheat Crop

Executive Summary

A near ideal growing season produced a great 2020 crop.

Overall Quality

Overall Quality

Over 80% of No. 1 and No. 2 grades across all major classes, as well as Falling Numbers over 350

How it was Grown

How it was Grown

Good growing conditions across Canada

Production

Production

Over 34 MT of wheat produced with large quantities in top 2 grades

Protein

Protein

Average or above average protein for all classes

Milling Quality

Milling Quality

Strong milling performance due to high test weight and high thousand kernel weight values

Shipping

Shipping

Shipping record amounts of grain through the pandemic

Dive into the details

CWRS

Canada Western Red Spring

Hard wheat. High protein content. Superior milling and baking characteristics. Excellent end-product quality.

CWAD

Canada Western Amber Durum

Superior yellow colour. High protein content. Hight semolina yield. Strong and extensible gluten.

CPSR

Canada Prairie Spring Red

Medium protein content. Medium kernel hardness. Excellent flour yields.

CESRW

Canada Eastern Soft Red Winter

Low protein content. Ideal for baking applications (cookies, crackers, cakes, etc.)

farmer

2020 in review

For 2020-21, we’re in a strong supply position, with over 34 million tonnes of total wheat produced and large quantities of the top 2 grades.

See how the crop progressed

02

Production

A 4.9% total wheat increase over 2019 – fueled by great production and above average yields.

Dryness and cool weather forced moderate environmental stress in certain regions. Yet production and quality were inevitably balanced by more certain and suitable conditions in other important growing regions.

 DurumWheatTotal
We Produced6,13428,01134,145
Carry-in7374,7635,500
Domestic use8218,1738,994
Exports5,30019,20024,500
End stocks8005,5006,300

AAFC estimates in thousands of metric tonnes

Cargo Ship

We'll export the weight of about 245,000 cargo ships

01

Growing

We’ve been fortunate to reap the benefits of warm temperatures, good ground moisture and well-timed rains – resulting in above-average crop yields.

For Western Canada

In the early stages of the season, spring’s cooler temperatures made for a slower start to seeding. But eventually, drier conditions accelerated field work.

During the growing season, well-timed rains coupled and ground moisture across the regions supported the crop’s establishment.

Certain agricultural pockets did face mild pressures caused by below average precipitation, hail, excess moisture and heat. However, long-term favourable growing conditions balanced out aggregate production and overall quality – leading to higher yields.

Harvesting progressed at a faster pace than the five-year average timeframe, bolstered by comparably warm and dry conditions.

For Eastern Canada

Normal fall plantings occurred with a bounce back to average amounts of winter kill in 2020.

Weather became dry right at pollination in early June which resulted in good quality wheat with low amounts of fusarium.

Harvest was completed quickly with over 90% of the crop grading above a No 2.

03

Sample Analysis

This year Cereals Canada worked directly with the grain exporters to obtain representative samples from the 2020 wheat crop.

Over 110 samples were received from 9 grain exporters. Each company sample represented export quality from a particular region. These samples were used to prepare composites that were thoroughly analyzed by Cigi, the technical division of Cereals Canada.

Eastern and Western composites were prepared for No. 1 CWRS

Prairie composites were prepared for No. 2 CWRS, CWAD and CPSR

Cereals Canada staff also communicated weekly with the individual exporters to understand how harvest was progressing and any relevant downgrading factors that may affect the quality of the 2020 wheat crop. This provided insurance that the composites represent the quality customers will see in their shipments.

Download analytical methods

04

Shipping

We’ve been shipping in record amounts, with no logistic disruptions.

Canada is investing in important infrastructure and supply chain improvements to ensure we are able to meet global customer needs in a reliable and future-oriented way.

These evolutions brought increases in both yield and capacity. Ten years ago, Canada exported approximately 33-million tonnes of grain. Advancing to the 2019/20 crop year, over 44-million tonnes was delivered to export markets.

Though the COVID global pandemic has inevitably changed the way business is conducted, we can assure that the virus has NOT impacted our crop or supply chain.

We continue to deliver on our promise – quality grain with no delay.

Who I am as a farmer is more than just growing and selling commodities—it’s growing food for families all over the world. It’s providing resources to our communities. It’s taking care of and improving the land I farm.”

Jake Leguee

Grain, oilseed and pulse farm

Filmore, SK

Quality nourished at every step

Planting

Planting

Wheat varieties are carefully selected for sowing, based on important characteristics including yield and protein potential, disease and insect resistance and variety classification.

Overall, the factors that influence crop selection are based on plant disease pressures, soil conditions and land stewardship priorities. Attempts are made to balance these factors with yield potential to maximize farm income. The focus on intrinsic properties and consistent quality is driven by the Variety Registration Process. This extensive exercise is overseen by the Government of Canada’s Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Variety Registration Office. It ensures that newly registered varieties will reflect the quality and characteristics expected of a particular wheat class.

Important innovations and practices ensure seeding and cultivation occurs effectively. Fertilizer and other crop inputs are used to keep soil healthy. Water conservation and erosion are managed by minimal soil disruption and achieved through reduced tillage technology. Precision technology influences the way Canadian producers farm and includes improvements in fuel consumption, GPS mapping, sectional control and auto steering to prevent overlapping and reduced seed, fertilizer and pesticide use.

Growing

Growing

Reducing plant competition and improving management practices optimizes plant nutrient usage and minimizes run-off.

Reduced tillage helps conserve water, minimize soil disruption and prevent erosion. Precision agriculture avoids overlapping and reduces seed, fertilizer and pesticide use, as well as reducing fuel consumption. Reduced plant competition allows for more efficient use of soil nutrients and moisture, while maximizing quality and yield. Crop rotation reduces pesticide use through sustainable crop diversification.

Harvesting & Storage

Harvesting & Storage

Straight cutting reduces work time, field passes, emissions and harvest costs.

Timing ensures kernel moisture content is optimal. Straw choppers and spreaders expedite how plant nutrients are returned to the soil. During the storage process, quality is maintained by cooling and lowering the kernel moisture content, minimizing pests and mycotoxin development.

  • It is essential to check bin condition regularly and ensure they are cleaned, cool, dry and well-ventilated – prior to storing any crop. To aid in long-term storage, the crops are also conditioned to varied moisture and temperature levels.
Shipping & Logistics

Shipping & Logistics

Infrastructure investments and supply chain improvements are fueling efficient exporting.

This year, Canada’s grain handling system is forecasting continued growth in shipping exports to markets around the world. Movement of Canadian grain by rail has flowed smoothly throughout the COVID-19 pandemic – with the rising demand for staple foods. With the focus provided by 2019-20 resilience tests, important infrastructure development projects are underway to help strengthen the distribution system and meet growing export demand.

From our fields to the world’s table

Clean air, clean water, clean land. Responsible farming is at the heart of what we do. Our crops are a reflection of our commitment to making Advancing Nourishment a reality, finding healthier ways to feed the planet now and in the future.

Where our wheat goes

Distribution pie chart

* Data updated November 2020

Canada supplies the world

13%

of its wheat exports

59%

of its durum exports

Canada feeds the world

Modern farming practices and cutting-edge innovations have enabled Canadian wheat to answer the worldwide call for a premium, sustainable product.

Canadian Wheat Classes

CWRS

Canada Western Red Spring

A hard wheat with high protein and superior milling and baking characteristics. Ideal for high-volume hearth-style, pan and flat breads, noodles and Asian product applications.

Learn more about CWRS

CWAD

Canada Western Amber Durum

High protein content, strong and extensible gluten, high semolina yield and superior yellow color make CWAD ideal for couscous, as well as dried and fresh pasta, and hearth-style, artisan and flat breads.

Learn more about CWAD

CPSR

Canada Prairie Spring Red

CPSR’s medium protein content, medium kernel hardness and excellent flour yields make it ideal for hearth-style, pan and flat breads, crackers, instant noodles and white salted noodles.

Learn more about CPSR

CESRW

Canada Eastern Soft Red Winter

Grown largely in Ontario, with additional production in Quebec and the Atlantic provinces, CESRW’s low protein content is ideally suited for cakes, pastry, cereal, crackers, biscuits and filling.

Learn more about CESRW
Have questions about our other wheat classes?

Everything we grow advances global nourishment

Canada is setting the standard for modern farming practices

Clean, consistent and quality

We grow and harvest better due to modern farming practices, Canada’s natural advantage and regulation from the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) which sets high standards for clean, consistent quality.

Growers strive to reduce plant competition, ensure a quick harvest and uphold quality standards during storage. In addition to our farmers using modern farming practices and being supported by Canada’s natural advantages, The Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) provides regulatory oversight through a grain classification and variety registration system. This allows Canada to ensure verifiable quality, consistency and cleanliness of our science-based products.

Innovation

Across the country, the farming industry continues to move forward and make advancements in farming practices and crop production. Along with regulatory agencies, Cereals Canada facilitates priority-setting for Canadian research, which centers around customers and their needs.

Canada’s clean, consistent, high-quality wheat is a product of cutting-edge new variety research, modern agronomic practices, and emerging farming technologies, as well as the work of regulatory agencies like the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), which ensures that all exports meet established standards. Growers are supported through Cereals Canada’s innovative Keep it Clean program, which promotes market considerations such as grain storage and pesticide use. Canada’s regulatory agencies play a coordinated role in supporting the quality and safety of Canadian wheat from production to export, including the CGC, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada.

Sustainability

Current management practices provide a better and healthier farming environment than previous generations. Modern protocols like conservation tillage and capturing or sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to slow or reverse atmospheric CO2 pollution to mitigate and reverse global warming keeps sustainability at the forefront of farming.

Modern protocols like conservation tillage are increasing soil health by building up organic matter and reducing erosion. Conservation tillage also reduces the amount of fuel used. Agriculture in the region helps to slow climate change by storing carbon on agricultural lands. Storing CO2 in soil as organic matter, as well as in perennial vegetation and in trees, reduces levels in the atmosphere itself. These management practices grant the next generation of growers with clean air, clean water and clean land – an environment that is healthier than when previous generations began farming.

I’ve been farming with my father for years, and now with my son on a true, multi-generational family farm. It’s an exciting and proud thing, and makes me realize that we try to do things right so the next generation can be successful too. ”

Brett Halstead

Mixed Farm

Nokomis, SK

Have questions? We have answers.

Anything from storage to seeding, technological innovations to farming practices, see below for responses to your inquiries.

Quality Assesment

Can you recommend storage practices for Canadian wheat in our country?

Growing Season

Why does Canadian wheat have a higher moisture content, and how does high moisture affect storage?

Farming Practices

Does the government mandate what gets grown?

What is the availability of CWRS / CWAD / CPSR for 2020?

Canada had a good 2020-21 growing season, resulting in relatively strong production and availability for export. According to Statistics Canada (as of October 23, 2020), exports of non-durum wheats are forecasted at over 19.2 million tonnes for 2020-21. Durum exports are forecasted at 5.3 million tonnes.

Please connect with your Canadian grain supplier for the latest details on key wheat class export availability into your market.

How did temperature affect the growing season and harvest season?

Although conditions varied by region, in the 2020-21 growing season, much of the Prairies seeded into relatively dry conditions, but received well-timed rains. This supported crop establishment in the early growing season.

Later in the season, sufficient heat and adequate precipitation in most areas helped support crop development and ripening. Harvest was completed at a faster pace than average across the Prairies, thanks to relatively dry and warm conditions. These conditions have supported strong quality outcomes.

See a full overview of growing conditions throughout the 2020-21 season

How is Canadian agriculture dealing with CO2 emissions?

While crop and livestock production account for 10 per cent of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions (excluding emissions from the use of fossil fuels or from fertilizer production), agriculture in the region also helps slow climate change by storying carbon on agricultural lands. Storying CO2 in soil as organic matter, as well as in perennial vegetation and in trees, reduces levels in the atmosphere itself.

How does frost damage impact the baking functionality of CWRS / CPSR / CWRW?

The Canadian wheat grading system protects wheat quality for end use. Frost/heat stress is a grading factor. If wheat has been downgraded on account of frost damage it may demonstrate some negative impacts on baking functionality, such as higher levels of starch damage during milling, and bread with decreased loaf volume, darker crumb color and coarser, more open crumb structure.

If this is the case, reduce water absorption during baking to help ensure optimal dough handling properties, and to prevent excessive stickiness. At the dough mixing stage, the flour may appear to absorb a higher volume of water due to higher starch damage. However, the dough may not be capable of retaining this bound water during other bread making stages, which leads to excessive stickiness.

Is there any GMO wheat grown in Canada?

Currently, there are no GMO wheat varieties grown or sold in Canada.

What is CP+?

Canadian medium protein wheats are often sold on specification outside of the official classification system to meet varying customer needs with a dynamic supply. Blends sold on specification that include a high proportion of the Canada Prairie Spring Red (CPSR) wheat class are commonly referred to as CP+ or CPS+, and also can include varying amounts of CWRS, CNHR or other classes.

Is Canada trying to decrease pesticide use? What are the specifications?

Canada has one of the most stringent regulatory systems in the world for pesticides, governed by Health Canada. Pest control products play an important role in improving wheat yield potential by reducing insect, weed and plant disease impacts, and ensuring food safety by reducing infection from plant diseases that produce mycotoxins, such as Fusarium graminearum and deoxynivalenol (DON).

Pest control product labels are legally binding documents in Canada. Under the Pest Control Products Act, product labels specify the amount of product, timing for application, amount of time between application and harvest, re-entry interval (how much time is needed after application before re-entry into the area) and personal protective equipment required for the product’s safe handling and use.

Cereals Canada is one of the member organizations of a national program called Keep it Clean, which is a resource for the value chain, in particular farmers, to protect access to global markets.

Learn more about pesticide use and monitoring:

Pesticides and health
Pesticide facts and figures

How can we guarantee pesticide residue levels?

Each year, the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) samples commodity export cargos for various pesticide residues to ensure they comply with importing Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs).

Additionally, at the point of grain delivery, farmers are required to sign a Declaration Form, indicating that the grain being delivered is of a registered variety (for applicable crop types). Grain handlers also request a declaration from the farmer to assure that any pest control products used are registered and were used according to label directions.

Cereals Canada is one of the member organizations of a national program called Keep it Clean, which is a resource for the value chain, in particular for farmers, to protect access to global markets.

How is wheat quality and safety assured throughout the system?

Canada is known for the production and export of clean, consistent, high-quality wheat. This reputation is supported by on-farm decisions as well as the work of regulatory agencies like the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), which inspect and certify export shipments based on established standards.

Canadian farmers take pride in growing safe, nutritious and affordable foods that are enjoyed by customers around the world. To support this outcome, farmers are encouraged to follow best practices through Cereals Canada’s Keep it Clean program, which promotes market considerations such as grain storage or pesticide use.

Is Falling Number (FN) a grading factor?

FN is not an official grading factor in Canada. However, buyers can purchase grain based on specific quality characteristics such as a minimum FN. This type of request can be discussed with your grain handler.

Sprout damage is an objective grading factor. Wheat kernels are visually assessed for sprouted and severely sprouted kernels. The tolerances for the amount of sprouted and severely sprouted kernels depend on the wheat class (CWRS, CWAD, CPSR, CWRW, CNHR etc.) and grade. Find more information in Chapter 4 of the Official Grain Grading Guide.

Is there a monitoring program on farm for pesticide use?

Not directly. However, at the point of grain delivery, farmers are required to sign a Declaration Form2 indicating that the grain being delivered is of a registered variety (for applicable crop types). Also, the grain handler will request a declaration that any pest control products used on the crop are registered and were used according to label directions.

Each year, the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC) samples commodity export cargos for various pesticide residues. This data gives insight into the residue levels of particular pesticides to ensure they comply with importing Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs).

Cereals Canada is one of the member organizations of a national program called Keep it Clean, which is a resource for the value chain, in particular for farmers, to protect access to global markets.

What are the residual glyphosate levels in soil and on the crop?

Glyphosate is quickly degraded by soil microorganisms. When glyphosate is applied to a crop according to the Canadian product label directions (rate, plant stage, etc.), product residues will be well below the allowable Maximum Residue Limit (MRL). A MRL is the maximum amount of residues that are expected to remain on food products when a pesticide is used according to label directions. In Canada, MRLs are set at levels well below the amount that could pose a health concern. Learn more

What are the tolerances for dockage/impurities in Canadian wheat?

Wheat shipped from Canada is shipped as commercially clean. Wheat cannot be shipped with dockage without the permission of the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC). The total tolerance (including total small seeds, large seeds, wild oats, roughage, and broken grain through #5 buckwheat sieve) for CWRS No. 1, 2, 3 is 0.5%.

For more information about export grade determinations visit pages 4-66 of the Official Grain Grading Guide

What’s a rational approach to moisture corrections?

Results corrected to a constant moisture basis ensure an accurate comparison between samples. Different countries have different moisture bases to which results are corrected. In Canada, wheat quality results are corrected to a 13.5% moisture basis and flour quality results are corrected to a 14.0% moisture basis.

Check out this table for an example of the protein content of three different samples with different moisture contents. The “as-is” protein content is the same, but when you correct to a specific moisture basis, the protein content changes.

Impact of moisture content and moisture correction on results*

Sample
MC%
Protein
content
(as is), %
Canada US Australia Other Countries
13.5% mb 12.0% mb 11.0% mb dmb %*
Protein content, %
13.4 14.9 14.9 15.1 15.3 17.2
12.4 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.1 17.0
11.4 14.9 14.5 14.8 15.0 16.8

*Adapted from Williams et al. 1998. Protein Testing Methods at the CGC. In, Proceedings of the Wheat Protein Symposium. University of SK.

Abbreviations used: MC = moisture content; mb = moisture basis; dmb = dry matter basis

What is the relationship between Cereals Canada and the Canadian Grain Commission (CGC), and what involvement does CGC have in Cereals Canada’s harvest assessment?

The CGC is part of our team Canada approach. Among other things, the grades for the composite samples and the protein estimates have come from CGC grain inspectors.

What is the relationship between protein and gluten?

Gluten is primarily made up of two different proteins: gliadin and glutenin. Gluten is formed when wheat flour and water are mixed to form a dough.

Wet gluten (WG) content is related to protein content. When protein content is higher, WG content generally will be higher.

Is gluten strength assessment part of grading?

Gluten strength assessment is not an official grading factor in Canada. However, buyers can purchase grain based on specific quality characteristics. You can discuss this type of request with your grain handler.

Where can I find the methods used in analytical testing?

You’ll find the methods used by Cereals Canada for milling, analytical testing and end-product under each class.

Download your data package for all 2020 wheat crop classes

What are the current logistics for rail and shipping?

This year, Canada’s grain handling system is forecasting continued growth in exports, with over 53 million tonnes of grain (including cereals, oilseeds and pulses) shipped to markets around the world.

Movement of Canadian grain by rail has flowed smoothly throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic resulted in relatively lower rail use by other commodities such as oil and lumber, and rising demand for staple foods among global customers. With focus provided by 2019-20 resilience tests, important infrastructure development projects are helping to strengthen the system and meet growing export demand. For example, Port Metro Vancouver is investing in several projects.

What is the average wheat yield on a farm?

Wheat yields in 2020-21 have been above average due to good growing conditions and the continued adoption of agronomic improvements by farmers. For non-durum wheat, estimated yield in 2020-21 is 3.67 tonnes per hectare (compared to 3.57 T/ha in 2019-20). For durum wheat, estimated yield this year is 2.74 tonnes per hectare (compared to 2.64 T/ha in 2019-20).

Can I request a grain sample?

Cereals Canada doesn’t directly market grain, which means we can’t facilitate samples, but would be happy to connect you with one of Canada’s leading grain handlers to obtain samples and inquire about product availability, quality and pricing. Contact us for more information.

How is flour extraction on a 0.50% ash calculated?

For the most accurate comparisons between two or more wheat samples, we compare flour extractions at the same ash level. At the Canadian International Grains Institute (Cigi), these extractions are corrected at 0.50% ash, a value that’s closer to the ash content of a commercially milled flour. Cigi bases calculations on the assumption that for every 0.01% difference in ash to 0.05%, the extraction percentage is increasing or decreasing by 0.5%.

How can wheat with a low falling number (FN) be managed in the mill?

The most common practice is to cut back on the addition of fungal amylase to the finished flour. If a mill isn’t adding fungal amylase to the finished flour, other ways to manage wheat with a low FN include:

Reducing starch damage: Damaged starch is more susceptible to amylase attack (present in wheat with a low FN).

Aggressive scouring: Alpha-amylase is concentrated on the outer part of the wheat kernel, which means more aggressive scouring could help remove some of this material.

Removing the tail-end flour streams: Tail-end flour streams tend to have higher levels of alpha-amylase.

Using a color sorter in the cleaning house: Observe whether severely sprouted kernels can be removed to increase the wheat FN (and the resulting flour). Note: Camera sensitivity may need to be adjusted.

Blending wheat with a sound FN with wheat with a low FN can be risky. FN values should be converted to a Liquefaction Number (LN; LN = 6000/(FN-50)) before calculating blend percentages. Contact Cigi milling staff for more on this calculation.

What enzymes and dough conditioners are used in the baking process?

There are a number of different dough conditioners that can be used, including:

Alpha-amylase: These break down damaged starch into smaller sugar units, which are consumed by yeast during fermentation to produce carbon dioxide (CO2). Amylases help optimize the dough’s gas production, which improves loaf volume and enhances crust colour.

Xylanase: These break down insoluble cell-wall compounds in the flour and create soluble fragments while releasing bound water into the dough for better gluten hydration. Xylanases enhance network formation in the dough and have a strengthening effect. They improve dough tolerance and machinability, resulting in improved loaf volume, crumb structure and softness.

Hemicellulase: These break down the hemicellulose or pentosans in flour, which releases bound water into the dough for better gluten hydration. They improve dough machinability (dough is made more 'machine-friendly') and help improve loaf volume and crumb structure.

Glucose oxidase: This dough additive causes a reaction that forms linkages in the dough’s gluten network. Glucose oxidase adds strength to the dough and makes it drier, which can help improve bread volume and result in a more uniform bread crumb.

Lipase: These break down fat in the flour to produce mono- and di-glycerides. They are recommended for use in bread formulations that have lower fat levels. Lipases improve dough strength and can help improve loaf volume and crumb structure.

Lipoxygenase: These break down fats in the flour that give pigments to the dough. They help improve crumb colour by making it whiter.

Maltogenic alpha-amylase: This converts the starch into forms that resist firming (staling in the bread), which can make the bread softer over its shelf life (anti-staling agents).

Dough conditioners are divided into four groups:

Reducing agents: These break down the linkages in the gluten network and make the dough weaker (more extensible and less elastic). They are typically used to reduce dough mixing time in commercial bakeries. Common types include L-cysteine and inactive yeast (glutathione).

Emulsifiers: These are fat-based ingredients that function as dough strengtheners and crumb softeners. Dough-strengthening emulsifiers (such as Diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and di-glycerides (DATEM), Sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL)) interact with the gluten network and make it more elastic and more extensible, which results in dough that is less susceptible to breaking when exposed to mechanical stresses (adds to its tolerance). They not only improve the strength of the gluten network but can also improve loaf volume and produce a finer crumb structure. Crumb-softening emulsifiers (such as Monoglycerides) bind with the gelatinizing starch during baking, which prevents the crumb from firming as the bread ages. The result is improved crumb softness.

Oxidants: These form linkages in the gluten network, which makes the dough stronger (less extensible and more elastic). Common types include ascorbic acid.

Vital wheat gluten: This increases the protein content of the flour and helps with gluten network formation. Vital wheat gluten can improve the tolerance and strength of the dough, which can improve loaf volume, produce stronger sidewalls and increase crumb strength.

What is the optimal tempering time for CWRS / CPSR / CWAD?

Optimal tempering time can vary in different countries and may also vary depending on the target product specifications (for example producing a specific particle size in CWAD semolina).

Generally, the following tempering times apply for most countries:

CWRS: 20-24 hrs

CPSR: 20 hours

CWAD: 12-16 hours for coarser semolina or 16-20 hours for finer semolina

What effect does starch damage have on baking quality?

Typically, starch damage levels in flour are between 5-8% (Megazyme results). These levels are optimal for overall baking performance.

Baking absorption depends on the level of starch damage. If flour has higher starch damage, it will generally absorb more water. However, this water might be released back into the dough during fermentation and can result in a stickier dough with more extensible properties and overall weaker dough handling properties. This negative impact is more apparent if a long-time fermentation baking practice is used, since it allows the enzymes to degrade the damaged starch to a greater level. The resulting bread will have lower volume with a more open crumb structure and less bright (creamier) crumb colour.

The dough’s gas production capability depends on the level of starch damage. Higher starch damage can cause excessive gas production and reduced overall dough fermentation tolerance, resulting in reduced loaf volume and a more open crumb structure.

What is crop insurance?

Farmers use crop insurance as a tool to manage exposure to potential natural hazards such as weather events and pests, which could pose a risk to production and yield. Crop insurance is among the suite of business risk management programs supported by federal and provincial governments for the benefit of Canadian farmers.

Have a question that wasn’t covered?

Download all 2020 wheat crop details
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